Petrochemical characteristics of Permo-Triassic granitoids from five regions (i) Mung Loei, (ii) Phu Thap Fah – Phu Thep, (iii) Phetchabun, (iv) Nakon Sawan – Lobburi, and (v) Rayong – Chantaburi along the Loei Fold Belt (LFB), northeastern Thailand were studied. The LFB is a north–south trending 800 km fold belt that hosts several gold and base-metal deposits. The granitoids consist of monzogranite, granodiorite, monzodiorite, tonalite, quartz-syenite, and quartz-rich granitoids. These are composed of quartz, plagioclase, and K-feldspar with mafic minerals such as hornblende and biotite. Accessory minerals, such as titanite, zircon, magnetite, ilmenite, apatite, garnet, rutile, and allanite are also present. Magnetic susceptibilities in the SI unit of granitoids vary from 6.5 × 10−3 to 15.2 × 10−3 in Muang Loei, from 0.1 × 10−3 to 29.4 × 10−3 in Phu Thap Fah – Phu Thep, from 2.7 × 10−3 to 34.6 × 10−3 in Petchabun, from 2.4 × 10−3 to 14.1 × 10−3 in Nakon Sawan – Lobburi, and from 0.03 × 10−3 to 2.8 × 10−3 in Rayong – Chantaburi. Concentration of major elements suggests that these intermediate to felsic plutonic rocks have calc-alkaline affinities. Concentration of REE of the granitoids normalized to chondrite displays moderately elevated light REE (LREE) and relatively flat heavy (HREE) patterns, with distinct depletion of Eu. Rb versus Y/Nb and Nb/Y tectonic discrimination diagrams illustrate that the granitoids from Muang Loei, Phu Thap Fah – Phu Thep, Phetchabun, Nakon Sawan – Lobburi, and Rayong – Chantaburi formed in continental volcanic-arc setting. New age data from radiometric K-Ar dating on K-feldspar from granodiorite in Loei and Nakhon Sawan areas yielded 171 ± 3 and 221 ± 5 Ma, respectively. K-Ar dating on hornblende separated from diorite in Lobburi yielded 219 ± 8 Ma. These ages suggest that magmatism of Muang Loei occurred in the Middle Jurassic, and Nakon Sawan – Lobburi occurred in Late Triassic. Both Nb versus Y and Rb versus (Y + Nb) diagrams and age data indicate that Nakon Sawan – Lobburi granitoids intruded in Late Triassic at Nong Bua, Nakon Sawan province and Khao Wong Phra Jun, Lobburi province in volcanic arc setting. Muang Loei granitoids at the Loei province formed later in Middle Jurassic also in volcanic arc setting. The negative δ34SCDT values of ore minerals from the skarn deposit suggest that the I-type magma has been influenced by light biogenic sulfur from local country rocks. The Au-Cu-Fe-Sb deposits correlate with the magnetite-series granitoids in Phetchabun, Nakon Sawan – Lobburi and Rayong – Chantaburi areas. Metallogeny of the Au and Cu-Au skarn deposits and the epithermal Au deposit is related to adakitic rocks of magnetite-series granitoids from Phetchabun and Nakon Sawan areas. All mineralizations along the LFB are generated in the volcanic arc related to the subduction of Paleo-Tethys. The total Al (TAl) content of biotite of granitoids increases in the following order: granitoids associated with Fe and Au deposit < with Cu deposit < barren granitoids. XMg of biotite in granitoids in Muang Loei indicates the crystallization of biotite in magnetite-series granitoids under high oxygen fugacity conditions. On the other hand, low XMg (<0.4) of biotite in magnetite-series granitoids in Phu Thap Fah – Phu Thep and Rayong – Chantaburi indicates a reduced environment and low oxygen fugacity, associated with Au skarn deposit (Phu Thap Fah) and Sb-Au deposit (Bo Thong), respectively. The magnetite-series granitoids at Phu Thap Fah having low magnetic susceptibilities and low XMg of biotite were formed by reduction of initially oxidizing magnetite-series granitic magma by interaction with reducing sedimentary country rocks as suggested by negative δ34SCDT values.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Geochemistry and Petrology