Phloretin has pleiotropic effects, including glucose transporter (GLUT) inhibition. We previously showed that phloretin promoted adipogenesis of bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) line ST2 independently of GLUT1 inhibition. This study investigated the effect of phloretin on osteoblastogenesis of ST2 cells and osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Treatment with 10 to 100 µM phloretin suppressed mineralization and expression of osteoblast differentiation markers, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OCN), type 1 collagen, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), and osterix (Osx), while increased adipogenic markers, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), fatty acid-binding protein 4, and adiponectin. Phloretin also inhibited mineralization and decreased osteoblast differentiation markers of MC3T3-E1 cells. Phloretin suppressed phosphorylation of Akt in ST2 cells. In addition, treatment with a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt inhibitor, LY294002, suppressed the mineralization and the expression of osteoblast differentiation markers other than ALP. GLUT1 silencing by siRNA did not affect mineralization, although it decreased the expression of OCN and increased the expression of ALP, Runx2, and Osx. The effects of GLUT1 silencing on osteoblast differentiation markers and mineralization were inconsistent with those of phloretin. Taken together, these findings suggest that phloretin suppressed osteoblastogenesis of ST2 and MC3T3-E1 cells by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway, suggesting that the effects of phloretin may not be associated with glucose uptake inhibition.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry