Activation of receptor tyrosine kinases leads to the formation of two different types of plasma membrane structures: peripheral ruffles and dorsal ruffles. Although the formation of both ruffle types requires activation of the small GTPase Rac, the difference in kinetics suggests that a distinct regulatory mechanism operates for their ruffle formation. DOCK1 and DOCK5 are atypical Rac activators and are both expressed in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). We found that although PDGFinduced Rac activation and peripheral ruffle formation were coordinately regulated by DOCK1 and DOCK5 in MEFs, DOCK1 deficiency alone impaired dorsal ruffle formation in MEFs. UnlikeDOCK5,DOCK1bound to phosphatidic acid (PA) through the C-terminal polybasic amino acid cluster and was localized to dorsal ruffles. When this interaction was blocked, PDGF-induced dorsal ruffle formation was severely impaired. In addition, we show that phospholipase D, an enzyme that catalyzes PA synthesis, is required for PDGF-induced dorsal, but not peripheral, ruffle formation. These results indicate that the phospholipase D-PA axis selectively controls dorsal ruffle formation by regulating DOCK1 localization.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology