Phosphatidylserine liposome multilayers mediate the M1-to-M2 macrophage polarization to enhance bone tissue regeneration

Riki Toita, Jeong Hun Kang, Akira Tsuchiya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

An appropriate immune microenvironment, governed by macrophages, is essential for rapid tissue regeneration after biomaterial implantation. The macrophage phenotypes, M1 (inflammatory) and M2 (anti-inflammatory/healing), exert opposing effects on the repair of various tissues. In this study, a new strategy to promote tissue repair and tissue-to-biomaterial integration by M1-to-M2 macrophage transition using artificial apoptotic cell mimetics (phosphatidylserine liposomes; PSLs) was developed using bone as a model tissue. Titanium was also selected as a model substrate material because it is widely used for dental and orthopedic implants. Titanium implants were functionalized with multilayers via layer-by-layer assembly of cationic protamine and negatively charged PSLs that were chemically stabilized to prevent disruption of lipid bilayers. Samples carrying PSL multilayers could drive M1-type macrophages into M2-biased phenotypes, resulting in a dramatic change in macrophage secretion for tissue regeneration. In a rat femur implantation model, the PSL-multilayer-coated implant displayed augmented de novo bone formation and bone-to-implant integration, associated with an increased M1-to-M2-like phenotypic transition. This triggered the proper generation and activation of bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts relative to their uncoated counterparts. This study demonstrates the benefit of local M1-to-M2 macrophage polarization induced by PSL-multilayers constructed on implants for potent bone regeneration and bone-to-implant integration. The results of this study may help in the design of new immunomodulatory biomaterials. Statement of significance: Effective strategies for tissue regeneration are essential in the clinical practice. The macrophage phenotypes, M1 (inflammatory) and M2 (anti-inflammatory/healing), exert opposing effects on the repair of various tissues. Artificially produced phosphatidylserine-containing liposomes (PSLs) can induce M2 macrophage polarization by mimicking the inverted plasma membranes of apoptotic cells. This study demonstrates the advantages of local M1-to-M2 macrophage polarization induced by PSL-multilayers constructed on implants for effective bone regeneration and osseointegration (bone-to-implant integration). Mechanistically, M2 macrophages promote osteogenesis but inhibit osteoclastogenesis, and M1 macrophages vice versa. We believe that our study makes a significant contribution to the design of new immunomodulatory biomaterials for regenerative medicine because it is the first to validate the benefit of PSLs for tissue regeneration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)583-596
Number of pages14
JournalActa Biomaterialia
Volume154
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biotechnology
  • Biomaterials
  • Biochemistry
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Molecular Biology

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