Phthalic acid assisted nano-sized spinel LiMn2O4 and LiCrxMn2-xO4 (x = 0.00-0.40) via sol-gel synthesis and its electrochemical behaviour for use in Li-ion-batteries

R. Thirunakaran, A. Sivashanmugam, S. Gopukumar, Charles W. Dunnill, Duncan H. Gregory

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Nano-sized particles of spinel LiMn2O4 and LiCrxMn2-xO4 (x = Cr; 0.00-0.40) have been synthesized using phthalic acid as chelating agent for the first time by sol-gel method. When compared to solid-state synthesis method, the sol-gel route reduces heating time of synthesize and to obtain particles of uniform surface morphology. The synthesized samples were characterized through thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SEM images of the parent compounds show nanospherical grains of LiMn2O4 when compared to chromium-doped ones. XRD patterns of LiMn2O4 ascertain amorphous nature and for high calcined LiCrxMn2-xO4 single phase highly crystalline patterns were obtained. TEM images of the parent and chromium-doped spinel particles depict individual grain morphology with well-separated grain boundaries. LiCr0.10Mn1.90O4 excels in discharge and cycling behaviour and offer higher columbic efficiency, when compared to un-doped LiMn2O4. Cyclic voltammograms of LiMn2O4 and LiCrxMn2-xO4 exhibit oxidation and reduction peaks corresponding to Mn3+/Mn4+ and Cr3+/Cr4+.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2119-2129
Number of pages11
JournalMaterials Research Bulletin
Issue number8-9
Publication statusPublished - 2008

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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