Fuel injection and mixing into air play a crucial role in the operation of hypersonic airbreathing propulsion systems, particularly scramjet engines featuring upstream fuel injection. This study applies an advanced design methodology combining computational fluid dynamics and evolutionary algorithms assisted by surrogate modeling to a multi-objective optimization for fuel injection in a Mach 5.7 crossflow after the initial compression in a scramjet intake operating at Mach 7.6. Optimization is performed for elliptical injector configurations defined by four design parameters (i.e., the injection angle, spanwise spacing, aspect ratio, and radius of the injector), simultaneously aiming to maximize three objectives, that is, fuel/air mixing, total pressure saving, and fuel penetration into the crossflow. Statistical methods based on global sensitivity analysis are employed to assess the optimization results in conjunction with surrogate models to identify key design factors with respect to the three design objectives and additional performance measures. Major effects of the injection angle and aspect ratio have been observed on all considered design criteria. The spanwise spacing has been found to have considerable influence on the total pressure recovery, fuel penetration, and lateral spread when the injection pressure is adjusted to maintain a constant fuel/air equivalence ratio. Low-angle fuel injection through a highly elliptic orifice with wide spanwise spacing demonstrated the most comprehensive advantages in overall aspects.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Aerospace Engineering
- Fuel Technology
- Mechanical Engineering
- Space and Planetary Science