Pitavastatin-Incorporated Nanoparticles for Chronic Limb Threatening Ischemia: A Phase I/IIa Clinical Trial

Takuya Matsumoto, Shinichiro Yoshino, Tadashi Furuyama, Koichi Morisaki, Kaku Nakano, Jun Ichiro Koga, Yoshihiko Maehara, Kimihiro Komori, Masaki Mori, Kensuke Egashira

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Aim: To assess the results of a phase I/IIa open-label dose-escalation clinical trial of 5-day repeated intramuscular administration of pitavastatin-incorporated poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (NK-104-NP) in patients with chronic limb threatening ischemia (CLTI). Methods: NK-104-NP was formulated using an emulsion solvent diffusion method. NK-104-NP at four doses (nanoparticles containing 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 mg of pitavastatin calcium, n=4 patients per dose) was investigated in a dose-escalation manner and administered intramuscularly into the ischemic limbs of 16 patients with CLTI. The safety and therapeutic efficacy of treatment were investigated over a 26-week follow-up period. Results: No cardiovascular or other serious adverse events caused by NK-104-NP were detected during the follow-up period. Improvements in Fontaine and Rutherford classifications were noted in five patients (one, three, and one in the 1-, 2-, and 4-mg dose groups, respectively). Pharmacokinetic parameters including the maximum serum concentration and the area under the blood concentration-time curve increased with pitavastatin treatment in a dose-dependent manner. The area under the curve was slightly increased at day 5 compared with that at day 1 of treatment, although the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions: This is the first clinical trial of pitavastatin-incorporated nanoparticles in patients with CLTI. Intramuscular administration of NK-104-NP to the ischemic limbs of patients with CLTI was safe and well tolerated and resulted in improvements in limb function.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)731-746
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Internal Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Biochemistry, medical


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