Plasmalogens, mostly ethanolamine-containing alkenyl ether phospholipids, are a major subclass of glycerophospholipids. Plasmalogen synthesis is initiated in peroxisomes and completed in the endoplasmic reticulum. The absence of plasmalogens in several organs of peroxisome biogenesis-defective patients suggests that the de novo synthesis of plasmalogens plays a pivotal role in its homeostasis in tissues. Plasmalogen synthesis is regulated by modulating the stability of fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1 on peroxisomal membranes, a rate-limiting enzyme in plasmalogen synthesis, by sensing plasmalogens in the inner leaflet of plasma membranes. Dysregulation of plasmalogen homeostasis impairs cholesterol biosynthesis by altering the stability of squalene monooxygenase, a key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis, implying physiological consequences of plasmalogen homeostasis with respect to cholesterol metabolism in cells, as well as in organs such as the liver.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Structural Biology
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology