We recently reported that a treatment with tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a secondary bile acid, improved developmentally-deteriorated hepatic steatosis in an undernourishment (UN, 40% caloric restriction) in utero mouse model after a postnatal high-fat diet (HFD). We performed a microarray analysis and focused on two genes (Cidea and Cidec) because they are enhancers of lipid droplet (LD) sizes in hepatocytes and showed the greatest up-regulation in expression by UN that were completely recovered by TUDCA, concomitant with parallel changes in LD sizes. TUDCA remodeled developmentally-induced histone modifications (dimethylation of H3K4, H3K27, or H3K36), but not DNA methylation, around the Cidea and Cidec genes in UN pups only. Changes in these histone modifications may contribute to the markedly down-regulated expression of Cidea and Cidec genes in UN pups, which was observed in the alleviation of hepatic fat deposition, even under HFD. These results provide an insight into the future of precision medicine for developmentally-programmed hepatic steatosis by targeting histone modifications.
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