Periodontal infection induces systemic inflammation; therefore, aggravating diabetes. Orally administered periodontal pathogens may directly alter the gut microbiota. We orally treated obese db/db diabetes mice using Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg). We screened for Pg-specific peptides in the intestinal fecal specimens and examined whether Pg localization influenced the intestinal microbiota profile, in turn altering the levels of the gut metabolites. We evaluated whether the deterioration in fasting hyperglycemia was related to the changes in the intrahepatic glucose metabolism, using proteome and metabolome analyses. Oral Pg treatment aggravated both fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia (P < 0.05), with a significant (P < 0.01) increase in dental alveolar bone resorption. Pg-specific peptides were identified in fecal specimens following oral Pg treatment. The intestinal Pg profoundly altered the gut microbiome profiles at the phylum, family, and genus levels; Prevotella exhibited the largest increase in abundance. In addition, Pg-treatment significantly altered intestinal metabolite levels. Fasting hyperglycemia was associated with the increase in the levels of gluconeogenesis-related enzymes and metabolites without changes in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and insulin resistance. Oral Pg administration induced gut microbiota changes, leading to entero-hepatic metabolic derangements, thus aggravating hyperglycemia in an obese type 2 diabetes mouse model.
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