We cloned, sequenced and characterized a promoter region of the mouse homologue of the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein (APP)-encoding gene. The promoter region is highly homologous to that of the human APP (hAPP) gene. It has a high G+C content, lacks typical 'TATA' and 'CAAT' boxes, and contains possible binding sites for AP-1, heatshock factor, Sp1 and AP-4. The promoter region was fused with the cat reporter gene, and the fusion genes were transfected to both the NB41A3 (mouse neuroblastoma) and L-cell lines. The promoter activity was monitored by chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity in a transient expression assay. The promoter was equally active in both cell lines. The deletion analysis revealed that there existed a negative regulatory element(s) between -153 and -100 bp and a positive element(s) between -100 and -37 bp. The negative element was shown to suppress the transcriptional activity of heterologous simian virus 40 promoter. DNase I footprinting experiments revealed that three nuclear protein-binding sites existed in the regulatory region, one in the negative and two in the positive regulatory regions. Gel retardation assay showed that Sp1 was one of the factors binding to the positive regulatory region. A nuclear factor binding to the negative regulatory region seemed to be missing in brain.
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