In the present study, we isolated seven compounds from olive mill wastes (OMW), one of them being novel, and investigated their antidiabetic potential through inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes. To assist the possible characterization of the mechanisms involved, we analyzed the inhibitory kinetics of the active compounds. Oleanolic acid 1, maslinic acid 2, 1-acetoxypinoresinol 3, and luteolin-7-O-β-d-glucoside 6 exhibited stronger inhibitory activity against both enzymes, with IC50 values less than or close to that of acarbose. Other compounds pinoresinol and hydroxytyrosol-containing compounds (hydroxytyrosol acetate 4, hydroxytyrosol 7, and the novel one, 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-2-methoxyethanol 5) showed weak activity against both enzymes (IC50 > 500 μM). Our findings show that, first, the esterification of C-1 of the furofuran ring is the key feature for the stronger activity of 1-acetoxypinoresinol 3 against both enzymes (IC50 = 13.9 and 313 μM for α-amylase and α-glucosidase, respectively), as compared to pinoresinol; second, the oleanane skeletons of the triterpenes (1 and 2) are optimum for the α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities, while the hydroxytyrosol moiety may be responsible for the weak activities of 4, 5, and 7. Additionally, kinetics analysis of 1, 6, and 3 revealed that they inhibit α-glucosidase in mixed-type, noncompetitive, and uncompetitive mechanisms, respectively. We confirmed their mechanisms by measuring their affinity for the enzyme (Ki), and they all (1, 6, and 3) had a higher affinity for the enzyme, Ki > 1. This work adds more value to OMW for further studies as a potential source of lead antidiabetic compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of type 2 diabetes.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Chemical Engineering(all)