Variation in maternal reproductive traits was examined in field and reared populations of a geographically widespread reef fish, Pomacentrus coelestis (Pomacentridae), drawn from three different latitudes in Japan. Size-specific clutch size and clutch weight of wild fish increased with increasing latitude. Conversely, latitudinal variation in egg size of wild fish was obscure in same-season comparisons, probably because of the temperature effect on egg size. Common-environment experiments conducted at three temperatures showed that egg size decreased with increasing temperature in all populations. In the experiments, egg size, clutch size and clutch weight differed among populations at all temperatures, showing clear latitudinal clines. Females from low latitude spawned larger eggs at every experimental temperature. Size-specific clutch size and weight were greater in females from high latitude. Thus, the northern fish had a larger reproductive output per spawning and a larger number of smaller eggs in a spawning. Such interpopualtion variation in this fish is likely to be partially genetically based, although environmental effects on the variation cannot be entirely ruled out. This study provides evidence of potential latitudinal variation in the egg size and number in a coastal fish, by common-environment experiments. The close correspondence between latitudes and these maternal reproductive traits may be a consequence of local adaptation.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Aquatic Science