The gut microbiota has tremendous potential to affect the host’s health, in part by synthesizing vitamins and generating nutrients from food that is otherwise indigestible by the host. 1,5-Anhydro-d-fructose (1,5-AF) is a monosaccharide with a wide range of bioactive potentials, including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-microbial effects. Based on its potential benefits and minimal toxicity, it is anticipated that 1,5-AF will be used as a dietary supplement to support general health. However, the effects of 1,5-AF on the gut microbiota are yet to be clarified. Here, using an unbiased metagenomic approach, we profiled the bacterial taxa and functional genes in the caecal microbiota of mice fed a diet containing either 2% 1,5-AF or a reference sweetener. Supplementation with 1,5-AF altered the composition of the gut microbiota, enriching the proportion of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. 1,5-AF also altered the metabolomic profile of the gut microbiota, enriching genes associated with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide biosynthesis. These findings support the potential benefits of 1,5-AF, but further studies are required to clarify the impact of 1,5-AF on health and disease.
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