Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a factor in the hematopoietic cell transplantation-comorbidity index. However, the impact of pre-transplant DM on morbidity and cause-specific non-relapse mortality (NRM) remains unclear. We performed a retrospective study with registry data that included a total of 7626 patients who underwent their first allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) between 2007 and 2010. The median age was 44 years (range 0-88). Compared with patients without pre-transplant DM (non-DM group, n=7248), patients with pre-transplant DM (DM group, n=378) were older and were more likely to have high-risk disease, a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen and GVHD prophylaxis using tacrolimus. Multivariate analyses showed that pre-transplant DM was associated with increased risks of NRM (hazard ratio (HR)1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-1.76, P<0.01) and infection-related NRM (HR 2.08, 95% CI 1.58-2.73, P<0.01). The presence of pre-transplant DM was associated with an increased risk of overall mortality in a multivariate analysis (HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.35-1.78, P<0.01). In conclusion, pre-transplant DM was a risk factor for NRM, particularly infection-related mortality, after allogeneic HSCT. To improve the clinical outcome in patients with DM, the benefits of strict infection control and appropriate glycemic control should be explored in future trials.
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