The WJOG8815L phase II clinical study involves patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that harbored the EGFR T790M mutation, which confers resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). The purpose of this study was to assess the predictive value of monitoring EGFR genomic alterations in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) from patients with NSCLC that undergo treatment with the third-generation EGFR-TKI osimertinib. Plasma samples of 52 patients harboring the EGFR T790M mutation were obtained pretreatment (Pre), on day 1 of treatment cycle 4 (C4) or cycle 9 (C9), and at diagnosis of disease progression or treatment discontinuation (PD/stop). CtDNA was screened for EGFR-TKI-sensitizing mutations, the EGFR T790M mutation, and other genomic alterations using the cobas EGFR Mutation Test v2 (cobas), droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), and targeted deep sequencing. Analysis of the sensitizing—and T790M—EGFR mutant fractions (MFs) was used to determine tumor mutational burden. Both MFs were found to decrease during treatment, whereas rebound of the sensitizing EGFR MF was observed at PD/stop, suggesting that osimertinib targeted both T790M mutation-positive tumors and tumors with sensitizing EGFR mutations. Significant differences in the response rates and progression-free survival were observed between the sensitizing EGFR MF-high and sensitizing EGFR MF-low groups (cutoff: median) at C4. In conclusion, ctDNA monitoring for sensitizing EGFR mutations at C4 is suitable for predicting the treatment outcomes in NSCLC patients receiving osimertinib (Clinical Trial Registration No.: UMIN000022076).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Medicine
- Cancer Research