Daneshvar N, Tatsumi R, Peeler J, Anderson JE. Premature satellite cell activation before injury accelerates myogenesis and disrupts neuromuscular junction maturation in regenerating muscle. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 319: C116 -C128, 2020. First published May 6, 2020; doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00121.2020.-Satellite cell (SC) activation, mediated by nitric oxide (NO), is essential to myogenic repair, whereas myotube function requires innervation. Semaphorin (Sema) 3A, a neuro-chemorepellent, is thought to regulate axon guidance to neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) during myotube differentiation. We tested whether “premature” SC activation (SC activation before injury) by a NO donor (isosorbide dinitrate) would disrupt early myogenesis and/or NMJs. Adult muscle was examined during regeneration in two models of injury: myotoxic cardiotoxin (CTX) and traumatic crush (CR) (n = 4 -5/group). Premature SC activation was confirmed by increased DNA synthesis by SCs immediately in pretreated mice after CTX injury. Myotubes grew faster after CTX than after CR; growth was accelerated by pretreatment. NMJ maturation, classified by silver histochemistry (neurites) and acetylcholinesterase (AchE), and α-bungarotoxin staining (Ach receptors, AchRs) were delayed by pretreatment, consistent with a day 6 rise in the denervation marker γ-AchR. With pretreatment, S100B from terminal Schwann cells (TSCs) increased 10- to 20-fold at days 0 and 10 after CTX and doubled 6 days after CR. Premature SC activation disrupted motoneuritogenesis 8 -10 days post-CTX, as pretreatment reduced colocalization of pre- and postsynaptic NMJ features and increased Sema3A-65. Premature SC activation before injury both accelerated myogenic repair and disrupted NMJ remodeling and maturation, possibly by reducing Sema3A neuro-repulsion and altering S100B. This interpretation extends the model of Sema3A-mediated motoneuritogenesis during muscle regeneration. Manipulating the timing and type of Sema3A by brief NO effects on SCs suggests an important role for TSCs and Sema3A-65 processing in axon guidance and NMJ restoration during muscle repair.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cell Biology