Ceramide is a bioactive lipid with significant roles in several biological processes including cell proliferation, apoptosis, and raft formation. Although fluorescent derivatives of ceramide are required to probe the behavior of ceramide in cells and cell membranes, commercial fluorescent ceramide derivatives do not reproduce the membrane behavior of native ceramide because of the introduction of bulky fluorophores in the acyl chain. Recently, we developed novel fluorescent analogs of sphingomyelin in which the hydrophilic fluorophores, ATTO488 and ATTO594, are attached to the polar head of sphingomyelin via a nonaethylene glycol linker and demonstrated that their partition and dynamic behaviors in bilayer membranes are similar to native sphingomyelin. In this report, by extending the concept used for the development of fluorescent analogs of sphingomyelin, we prepared novel fluorescent ceramides that exhibit membrane behaviors similar to native ceramide and succeeded in visualizing ceramide-rich membrane domains segregated from ceramide-poor domains.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Surfaces and Interfaces