This study examined the prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders among children receiving residential care in Japanese children’s homes (CHs). The data on 7854 children aged 18 years or younger were collected using a ques- tionnaire for psychotherapists worked at 174 CHs in all regions of Japan. That included items of diagnostic state and experience of maltreatment. The preva- lence of neurodevelopmental disorders was 24% in CHs. The most common type in CHs was intellectual disabilities (11.9%), and the next most was autism spectrum disorder (6.1%). Logistic regression models revealed the children with experience of maltreatment had high risk of autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and specific learning disorder. These findings implied differential pattern from previous studies of Western coun- tries.