Primary ore mineral assemblage and fluid inclusion study of the Batu Hijau porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Sumbawa, Indonesia

Akira Imai, Satoshi Ohno

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Batu Hijan porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Sumbawa Island, Indonesia, is associated with a tonalitic intrusive complex. The temperature-pressure condition of mineralization at the Batu Hijau deposit is discussed on the basis of fluid inclusion microthermometry. Then, the initial Cu-Fe sulfide mineral assemblage is discussed. Bornite and chalcopyrite are m ajor copper ore minerals associated with quartz veinlets. The quartz veinlets have been classified into 'A' veinlets associated with bornite, digenite, chalcocite and chalcopyrite, 'B' veinlets having chalcopyrite± bornite along vuggy center-line, rare 'C' chalcopyrite-quartz veinlets, and late 'D' veinlets consisting of massive pyrite and quartz (Clode et al., 1999). Copper and gold mineralization is associated with abundant 'A' quartz veinlets. Abundant fluid inclusions are found in veinlet quartz consisting mainly of gas-rich inclusions and polyphase inclusions throughout the veinlet types. The hydrothermal activity occurred in temperature-pressure conditions of aqueous fluid immiscibility into hypersaline brine and dilute vapor. The halite dissolution (Tm[halite]) and liquid-vapor homogenization (Th) temperatures of the polyphase inclusions in veinlet quartz range from 270 to 472°C and from 280 to 454°C, respectively. The estimated salinity ranges from 36 to 47 wt% (NaCl equiv.). The apparent pressures lower than 300 bars are estimated to have been along the liquid-vapor-halite curve for the fluid inclusions having the Th lower than the Tm that trapped the brine saturated with halite, or at slightly higher pressure relative to liquid-vapor-halite curve for the fluid inclusions having the Th higher than the Tm that trapped the brine unsaturated with halite. The actual temperature and pressure during the hydrothermal activity at the Batu Hijau deposit are estimated to have been around 300°C and 50 bars. At such temperature-pressure conditions, the principal and initial Cu-Fe sulfide mineral assemblages are thought to be chalcopyrite + bornite solid solution (bnss) for the chalcopyrite-bearing assemblage, and chalcocite-digenite solid solution and bnss for the chalcopyrite-free assemblage.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)239-248
Number of pages10
JournalResource Geology
Volume55
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1 2005

Fingerprint

Quartz
ore mineral
chalcopyrite
porphyry
halite
fluid inclusion
Ores
Sodium chloride
Minerals
bornite
Deposits
quartz
Fluids
Vapors
solid solution
brine
Sulfide minerals
Solid solutions
hydrothermal activity
temperature

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geology
  • Geochemistry and Petrology

Cite this

Primary ore mineral assemblage and fluid inclusion study of the Batu Hijau porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Sumbawa, Indonesia. / Imai, Akira; Ohno, Satoshi.

In: Resource Geology, Vol. 55, No. 3, 01.09.2005, p. 239-248.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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N2 - The Batu Hijan porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Sumbawa Island, Indonesia, is associated with a tonalitic intrusive complex. The temperature-pressure condition of mineralization at the Batu Hijau deposit is discussed on the basis of fluid inclusion microthermometry. Then, the initial Cu-Fe sulfide mineral assemblage is discussed. Bornite and chalcopyrite are m ajor copper ore minerals associated with quartz veinlets. The quartz veinlets have been classified into 'A' veinlets associated with bornite, digenite, chalcocite and chalcopyrite, 'B' veinlets having chalcopyrite± bornite along vuggy center-line, rare 'C' chalcopyrite-quartz veinlets, and late 'D' veinlets consisting of massive pyrite and quartz (Clode et al., 1999). Copper and gold mineralization is associated with abundant 'A' quartz veinlets. Abundant fluid inclusions are found in veinlet quartz consisting mainly of gas-rich inclusions and polyphase inclusions throughout the veinlet types. The hydrothermal activity occurred in temperature-pressure conditions of aqueous fluid immiscibility into hypersaline brine and dilute vapor. The halite dissolution (Tm[halite]) and liquid-vapor homogenization (Th) temperatures of the polyphase inclusions in veinlet quartz range from 270 to 472°C and from 280 to 454°C, respectively. The estimated salinity ranges from 36 to 47 wt% (NaCl equiv.). The apparent pressures lower than 300 bars are estimated to have been along the liquid-vapor-halite curve for the fluid inclusions having the Th lower than the Tm that trapped the brine saturated with halite, or at slightly higher pressure relative to liquid-vapor-halite curve for the fluid inclusions having the Th higher than the Tm that trapped the brine unsaturated with halite. The actual temperature and pressure during the hydrothermal activity at the Batu Hijau deposit are estimated to have been around 300°C and 50 bars. At such temperature-pressure conditions, the principal and initial Cu-Fe sulfide mineral assemblages are thought to be chalcopyrite + bornite solid solution (bnss) for the chalcopyrite-bearing assemblage, and chalcocite-digenite solid solution and bnss for the chalcopyrite-free assemblage.

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