Objective: To search the predictive factors of infliximab resistance in intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)-resistant Kawasaki disease (KD) patients. Study design. Twenty-seven patients with KD who received infliximab after 4–5 g/kg of IVIG therapy from 2013 to 2015 were consecutively recruited in this study. They were divided into two groups: patients who responded to infliximab (infliximab-responsive group, n = 15) and patients who required additional therapy for the disease control (infliximab-resistant group, n = 12). We analyzed the clinical and laboratory parameters just before the infliximab treatment including serum levels of procalcitonin and cytokines with respect to the infliximab response. Results: Serum procalcitonin concentration (P = 0.017), neutrophils to lymphocytes ratio (P = 0.013), and % neutrophils (P = 0.004) were higher, and serum sodium concentration (P = 0.017) was lower in infliximab-resistant group than those of infliximab-responsive group, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that higher procalcitonin concentration (odds ratio [OR] 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00–5.00, P = 0.046) and lower sodium levels (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.32–1.00, P = 0.047), but not other variables, were associated with infliximab-resistance. Serum procalcitonin concentrations positively correlated with the serum levels of interleukin-6, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 and type 2, respectively. Analyses of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed that the cut-off value of procalcitonin 2.0 ng/ml had 58.3% of sensitivity and 93.3% of specificity. ROC analysis yielded an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.739 to predict infliximab-resistance. Conclusion: Serum procalcitonin might be an effective biomarker to predict infliximab resistance in severe KD patients who are refractory to IVIG treatment.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy
- Molecular Biology