Aims: Hepatic resection is the most effective therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, intrahepatic recurrence is common. Predictors of survival after intrahepatic recurrence have not been fully investigated. To clarify the prognosis and choice of treatment of intrahepatic recurrence after hepatic resection, we conducted a comparative retrospective analysis of 147 patients with HCC who underwent hepatic resection. Methods: We retrospectively examined the relations between clinicopathologic factors, including the number of recurrent intrahepatic tumors and long-term prognosis after recurrence in 147 HCC patients who underwent resection. We also examined long-term survival after recurrence based on treatment types and recurrence pattern. Results: Patients with multiple tumors (n = 83) showed less tumor differentiation, more frequent portal invasion, a higher alpha-fetoprotein level, and larger tumors than did patients with solitary tumor (n = 64). In the solitary tumor group, local ablation therapy and repeat hepatic resection were performed in 25 and 10, respectively. In the multiple tumor group, 59 were treated by transarterial chemoembolization. Multivariate analysis showed intraoperative blood transfusion and multiple tumors to be independent risk factors for poor cancer-related survival after recurrence. By subset analysis based on treatment types and recurrence pattern, survival after recurrence was significantly better in patients treated by local ablation therapy than those treated by other therapies in both solitary and multiple tumor groups. Conclusions: For patients with solitary recurrence, a good prognosis is predicted. Local ablation therapy is a best candidate for treatment of solitary and multiple intrahepatic recurrences after hepatic resection.
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