Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a curative therapeutic option for patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). We retrospectively compared the post-transplantation outcomes of 159 patients with CMML who underwent allo-HSCT using 4 types of donor sources: HLA-matched related donor graft, unrelated bone marrow (U-BM), unrelated cord blood (U-CB), and HLA-mismatched related donor graft. The median patient age at allo-HSCT was 54 years (range, 16 to 75 years). In multivariate analyses, the use of HLA-matched related donor grafts correlated with better overall survival than U-BM (hazard ratio [HR], 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21 to 3.48; P =.008), U-CB (HR, 3.80; 95% CI, 2.07 to 6.95; P <.001), or HLA-mismatched related donor grafts (HR, 6.18; 95% CI, 2.70 to 14.15; P <.001). Mortality after the relapse or progression of CMML did not significantly differ among the 4 types of donor source. Transplantation-related mortality was highest in recipients of U-CB (HR, 3.32; 95% CI, 1.33 to 8.26; P =.010). In patients with CMML, allo-HSCT using an alternative donor may contribute to durable remission; however, further improvements in transplantation-related mortality are required for this type of transplantation.
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