In order to investigate the characteristics of Pi 2 propagation observed in the high-latitude region, ground magnetometer data obtained at high-latitude CPMN stations were analyzed. The power of magnetic perturbation, (ΔH)2 + (ΔD)2, were calculated for Pi 2 events observed at four stations from 11 February through 20 April 1996 and for Pi 2s observed at two stations from 1 January through 27 March 1997. The times when the power of Pi 2s reached the maximum and the maximum amplitudes were compared among stations. The results are as follows. Pi 2s observed at Kotel'nyy (KTN: MLAT = 69.94°, MLON = 201.02°) reached the maximum amplitude earlier than those at lower-latitude station Tixie (TIK: MLAT = 65.67°, MLON = 196.88°), though the amplitudes were smaller at KTN than at TIK on average. The time lag from KTN to TIK has two peaks in its distribution; the primary and the secondary peaks are located around 10 s and 35 s, respectively. The mean value of the whole distribution of the time lag from KTN to TIK is about 20 s. Ultra Violet Image (UVI) data obtained by the Polar satellite was available during the second period; the UVI data indicate that it was when the auroral oval was located equatorward to KTN that the Pi 2 amplitude tended to reach the maximum earlier at KTN than at TIK. This observational result is important because Pi 2 was observed earlier in the polar cap region rather than in the auroral region. That is to say, Pi 2 was observed earlier in the polar cap region, which is not directly connected with the source region of Pi 2 via the magnetic field line. Longitudinal characteristics of Pi 2 propagation were derived by using data from longitudinally separated stations TIK, Chokurdakh (CHD: MLAT = 64.67°, MLON = 212.12°) and Kotzebue (KOT: MLAT = 64.52°, MLON = 249.72°). The result indicates the existence of the longitudinal center of Pi 2 propagation. The average magnetic local time of the center is estimated to have been ∼22.5 MLT; eastward (westward) of the center, Pi 2 exhibited an eastward (westward) propagation. The temporal and spatial developments of the Pi 2 propagation along the auroral zone were derived in an empirical manner. That is, the MLT (set to zero at the propagation center) dependence of the maximum amplitude time and the maximum amplitude itself of Pi 2 were derived in an empirical manner. As a result it is concluded that in the premidnight sector (i.e., around 22.5 MLT), KTN is the most probable location that observes the maximum amplitude of Pi 2 earliest among the CPMN stations located along 210° magnetic meridian. Our results show that the low-latitude Pi 2, which has often been used as a time indicator of substorm onset, is often delayed from the Pi 2 observed in the premidnight polar cap region. The present results imply that the consideration of high-latitude Pi 2s in addition to low-latitude Pi 2s can provide a new insight into the substorm onset timing. Thus it is necessary to consider the global features, especially Pi 2s observed in higher-latitude region, for studying substorm onset timing issues.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Space and Planetary Science