Background: Thrombophilia due to protein C (PC) and protein S (PS) deficiencies is highly prevalent among patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease and is reported to arise due to extracorporeal circulation during hemodialysis (HD). This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between HD treatment and thrombophilia. Methods: A total of 114 Japanese patients on maintenance HD (62 men, 52 women) were followed during 2008-2011. Their survival rates were compared against the duration of HD. Prior to each HD, coagulation/fibrinolysis parameters and PC and PS activities were measured using standard techniques. The patients were divided into two groups: Group 1, with PC and/or PS deficiencies (n = 32), and Group 2, without PC and PS deficiencies (n = 82). The influence of such deficiencies and duration of dialysis on survival was examined. Time-to-event analysis was applied using Kaplan-Meier estimates, and the log-rank test was proposed to test the equivalence of relative survival data. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results: Of the 114 patients, 37 died (Group 1, 22; Group 2, 15). The hazard ratio (95% CI) was higher (p = 0.004) in Group 1 than Group 2. Gene analyses of PC and PS were performed in 14 patients from Group 1. No mutations in either protein were observed. We analyzed the causes of death in both groups; however, the estimated thrombophilia-related incidence of death could not be determined due to small sample size of HD patients. Conclusions: Our results suggest that PC and PS deficiencies may be related to survival in HD patients. However, this finding warrants additional research.
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