Protein kinase C (PKC) is a large family of calcium- and phospholipid-dependent serine/threonine kinases that consists of at least 11 isozymes. Based on their structural characteristics and mode of activation, the PKC family is classified into three subfamilies: conventional or classic (cPKCs; α, βI, βII, and γ), novel or non-classic (nPKCs; δ, ε, η, and θ), and atypical (aPKCs; ζ, ι, and λ) (PKCλ is the mouse homolog of PKCι) PKC isozymes. PKC isozymes play important roles in proliferation, differentiation, survival, migration, invasion, apoptosis, and anticancer drug resistance in cancer cells. Several studies have shown a positive relationship between PKC isozymes and poor disease-free survival, poor survival following anticancer drug treatment, and increased recurrence. Furthermore, a higher level of PKC activation has been reported in cancer tissues compared to that in normal tissues. These data suggest that PKC isozymes represent potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for cancer. This review summarizes the current knowledge and discusses the potential of PKC isozymes as biomarkers in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of cancers.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research