Protostellar Evolution in Serpens Main: Possible Origin of Disk-size Diversity

Yusuke Aso, Naomi Hirano, Yuri Aikawa, Masahiro N. Machida, Nagayoshi Ohashi, Masao Saito, Shigehisa Takakuwa, Hsi Wei Yen, Jonathan P. Williams

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9 Citations (Scopus)


We have observed the submillimeter continuum condensations SMM2, SMM4, SMM9, and SMM11 in the star-forming cluster Serpens Main using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array during Cycle 3 in the 1.3 mm continuum, 12CO J = 2 - 1, SO J N = 65 - 54, and C18O J = 2 - 1 lines at an angular resolution of ∼0.″55 (240 au). Sixteen sources have been detected in the 1.3 mm continuum, which can be classified into three groups. Group 1 consists of six sources showing extended continuum emission and bipolar/monopolar 12CO outflows. Although all the Group 1 members are classified as Class 0 protostars, our observations suggest evolutionary trends among them in terms of 12CO outflow dynamical time, SO emission distribution, C18O fractional abundance, and continuum morphology. Group 2 consists of four sources associated with a continuum filamentary structure and no 12CO outflows. Central densities estimated from the 1.3 mm continuum intensity suggest that they are prestellar sources in a marginally Jeans unstable state. Group 3 consists of six Spitzer sources showing point-like 1.3 mm continuum emission and clumpy 12CO outflows. These features of Group 3 suggest envelope dissipation, preventing disk growth from the present size, r ≲ 60 au. The Group 3 members are protostars that may be precursors to the T Tauri stars associated with small disks at radii, of tens of astronomical units, identified in recent surveys.

Original languageEnglish
Article number209
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Dec 20 2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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