This study developed a radiomics-based predictive model for radiation-induced pneumonitis (RP) after lung cancer stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) on pretreatment planning computed tomography (CT) images. For the RP prediction models, 275 non-small-cell lung cancer patients consisted of 245 training (22 with grade ≥ 2 RP) and 30 test cases (8 with grade ≥ 2 RP) were selected. A total of 486 radiomic features were calculated to quantify the RP texture patterns reflecting radiation-induced tissue reaction within lung volumes irradiated with more than x Gy, which were defined as LVx. Ten subsets consisting of all 22 RP cases and 22 or 23 randomly selected non-RP cases were created from the imbalanced dataset of 245 training patients. For each subset, signatures were constructed, and predictive models were built using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator logistic regression. An ensemble averaging model was built by averaging the RP probabilities of the 10 models. The best model areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) calculated on the training and test cohort for LV5 were 0.871 and 0.756, respectively. The radiomic features calculated on pretreatment planning CT images could be predictive imaging biomarkers for RP after lung cancer SBRT.
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