Gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast media were introduced as alternatives to iodinated media for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although originally thought to be non-nephrotoxic, Gd-based contrast media have recently been reported to be associated with acute kidney injury. The underlying mechanism of Gd-induced renal injury is not completely understood. We report an 80-year-old patient with buccal mucosa cancer for whom MRI with Gd-based contrast agent was conducted 3 times within 3 weeks. The patient developed rapid deterioration of pre-existing renal insufficiency, and developed uremic symptoms and pulmonary edema. The patient was hemodialyzed 3 times. This resulted in improvement of renal function and clinical symptoms. This case emphasizes the potential nephrotoxicity of Gd-based contrast media and suggests that renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, old age and high dose of Gd-based contrast medium are risk factors for acute kidney injury.
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