Real-Time Facile Detection of the WO3 Catalyst Oxidation State under Microwaves Using a Resonance Frequency

Shuntaro Tsubaki, Tomoki Higuchi, Tomoki Matsuzawa, Satoshi Fujii, Masateru Nishioka, Yuji Wada

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3 Citations (Scopus)


Microwaves (MWs) are often used to enhance various heterogeneous catalytic reactions. Here, we demonstrate real-time monitoring of a catalyst's oxidation state in a microwave catalytic reaction using a resonance frequency. The changes in the catalyst's oxidation state during the reaction induced changes in the resonance frequency in the cavity resonator. The resonance frequency was not affected by 2-propanol adsorption, while the frequency decreased with the reduction of WO3 → WO3-x. That is, the redox state of the WO3 catalyst could be detected using the resonance frequency. The oxidation state of the WO3 catalyst was then directly observed by the resonance frequency during the dehydration reaction of 2-propanol by microwaves as a model reaction. Resonance frequency monitoring revealed that the enhanced dehydration of 2-propanol by microwaves was attributable to the reduction of the WO3 catalyst. Moreover, the temporal changes in the oxidation state of the WO3 catalyst detected by the resonance frequency coincided with that observed by operando Raman spectroscopy. Therefore, real-time resonance frequency monitoring allowed facile detection of the bulk catalyst oxidation state under microwaves without using any spectroscopic apparatus.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31957-31962
Number of pages6
JournalACS Omega
Issue number49
Publication statusPublished - Dec 15 2020
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)


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