Peroxisomes are single-membrane organelles present in eukaryotes. The functional importance of peroxisomes in humans is represented by peroxisome-deficient peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs), including Zellweger syndrome. Defects in the genes that encode the 14 peroxins that are required for peroxisomal membrane assembly, matrix protein import and division have been identified in PBDs. A number of recent findings have advanced our understanding of the biology, physiology and consequences of functional defects in peroxisomes. In this Review, we discuss a cooperative cell defense mechanisms against oxidative stress that involves the localization of BAK (also known as BAK1) to peroxisomes, which alters peroxisomal membrane permeability, resulting in the export of catalase, a peroxisomal enzyme. Another important recent finding is the discovery of a nucleoside diphosphate kinase-like protein that has been shown to be essential for how the energy GTP is generated and provided for the fission of peroxisomes. With regard to PBDs, we newly identified a mild mutation, Pex26-F51L that causes only hearing loss. We will also discuss findings from a new PBD model mouse defective in Pex14, which manifested dysregulation of the BDNF-TrkB pathway, an essential signaling pathway in cerebellar morphogenesis. Here, we thus aim to provide a current view of peroxisome biogenesis and the molecular pathogenesis of PBDs.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cell Biology