Background: Although there are numerous reports focusing on surgical indication for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), the recurrence patterns following surgery are less widely reported. To ascertain optimal treatment and postoperative surveillance for IPMN patients, we analyzed patterns and risk factors for recurrence after surgery for IPMN. Methods: This study is a retrospective, multi-institutional, observational study, including 1074 patients undergoing surgery for IPMN at 11 academic institutions. We analyzed the risk factors for recurrence after classifying postoperative recurrences into metachronous high-risk lesions (malignant progression of IPMN and/or metachronous pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma) in the remnant pancreas and extra-pancreatic recurrence. Results: Of 1074 patients undergoing surgery for IPMN, 155 patients (14.4%) developed postoperative recurrence. We found that 34.3% of 70 high-risk lesions in the remnant pancreas occurred over 5 years after surgery, and survival of 36 patients undergoing second operation for high-risk lesions was better than that of 34 patients who did not (P = 0.04). We found four independent risk factors for metachronous high-risk lesions in remnant pancreas: symptoms [P = 0.005, hazard ratio (HR) 1.988], location of pancreatic body/tail (P < 0.001, HR 3.876), main duct size ≥ 10 mm (P = 0.021, HR 1.900), and high-grade dysplasia/invasive intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma (IPMC) (P < 0.001, HR 3.204). Although six patients (0.7%) with low- or high-grade dysplasia IPMN developed extra-pancreatic recurrence, invasive IPMC was the strongest risk factor for extra-pancreatic recurrence (P < 0.001, HR 39.667). Conclusion: We suggest that life-time continuous surveillance might be necessary for IPMN patients. Second surgery for metachronous high-risk lesions in remnant pancreas should be considered to improve survival.
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