Reducing Mortality of Single-Unit Unrelated Cord Blood Transplantation for Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia after a Previous Allogeneic Transplantation: A Real-World Retrospective Study Over the Past 19 Years in Japan

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Working Group of the Japanese Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy

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Abstract

Relapse is the most common cause of treatment failure after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Second or subsequent allogeneic HCT using unrelated cord blood has been performed for adult patients with AML who have relapsed after a previous allogeneic HCT. Although outcomes after unrelated cord blood transplantation (CBT) as the first allogeneic HCT have significantly improved in recent years, it is unclear whether survival and engraftment improve after CBT as the second or subsequent allogeneic HCT for adult AML patients relapsing after a previous allogeneic HCT. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate trends of survival and other transplantation outcomes after single-unit unrelated CBT as a second or subsequent allogeneic HCT in adult patients with relapsed AML after a previous allogeneic HCT over the past 19 years in Japan. We retrospectively assessed survival trends and other outcomes of single-unit unrelated CBT as a second or subsequent allogeneic HCT in adult patients with relapsed AML after a previous allogeneic HCT according to the time period of CBT (2001–2007, 2008–2013, or 2014–2019) using a nationwide Japanese database. The median age was 45 years among 1109 CBTs, and 844 (78.6%) patients were not in complete remission at the time of CBT. Over the 3 time periods, there was a progressive increase in higher cryopreserved cord blood total nucleated cell dose and myeloablative conditioning regimens. The 2-year overall survival was 14.0% in 2001–2007, 19.9% in 2008–2013, and 24.4% in 2014–2019 (P <.001 by log-rank trend test). The 2-year relapse-related mortality was 54.0% in 2001–2007, 44.4% in 2008–2013, and 39.1% in 2014–2019 (P < 0.001 by Gray's test), but nonrelapse mortality was not significantly different across the time periods (P = 0.557 by Gray's test). The 42-day neutrophil engraftment also significantly improved (62.9% in 2001–2007, 69.7% in 2008–2013, and 79.9% in 2014–2019; P < 0.001 by Gray's test). Our data demonstrate significant improvements in overall and relapse-related mortality, as well as neutrophil engraftment, after single-unit unrelated CBT as a second or subsequent allogeneic HCT for adult patients with AML relapsed after previous allogeneic HCT over the past 19 years.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)777.e1-777.e11
JournalTransplantation and Cellular Therapy
Volume28
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Hematology
  • Cell Biology
  • Transplantation

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