It is known that social factors affect the choice of treatments, and special attention has been paid to sex differences. The purpose of this study was to determine whether regional and sex differences exist in the treatment of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RD). We used Japan-RD Registry database of 2523 patients aged ≥ 40 years between February 2016 and March 2017 in 5 Japanese regions. Regional differences of patients’ perioperative factors were analyzed. The factors affecting the proportion of patients who underwent surgery within one week of the onset, defined as early-surgery, were examined by logistic regression. We observed regional differences in perioperative factors, especially in the use of phacovitrectomy, general anesthesia, and air-tamponade, which was higher in certain regions. (Fisher’s exact test, all P = 0.012) The proportion of early-surgery was significantly higher among men in Kyushu region (Odds ratio (OR) 1.83; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–3.12; P = 0.02), and it was also significantly higher after adjusting for covariates (OR 1.89; 95% CI 1.06–3.42; P = 0.02). Regional and sex differences exist in the treatment of RD in Japan. Although there was no significant differences in the anatomical outcomes, women in certain regions of Japan are less likely to receive early surgical intervention for RD.
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