CYP11A1 is a key enzyme in steroid synthesis abundantly expressed in the adrenal, testis, ovary, and placenta. This article reviews recent studies on cis-regulatory elements and trans-regulators of the CYP11A1 promoter, with special focus on their tissue-specific regulation. Trans-regulators include tissue-specific factors such as SF-1, DAX-1, TReP-132, LBP, and GATA that regulate tissue-specific expression of CYP11A1. These tissue-specific factors interact with factors commonly present in most cells like AP-1, Sp1, and AP-2 to bring CYP11A1 transcription to full potential. These transcription factors stimulate CYP11A1 transcriptional activity through interaction with their specific cis-elements or through protein-protein interaction. The cis-element on the Cyp11a1 promoter was further characterized in vitro and in vivo. Mutation of the proximal SF-1-binding site results in down regulation of CYP11A1 in the adrenal and testis but not in the ovary and placenta, leading to attenuated corticosterone circadian rhythms and blunted stress response.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology