Relationship between AC/DC ratio and light-blocking structure for reflective photoplethysmographic sensor

Hirofumi Nogami, Wataru Iwasaki, Nobutomo Morita, Ryo Takigawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Photoplethysmographic (PPG) sensors are suitable for wearable devices, and they can provide a wide range of information such as stress level (calculated from the heart rate interval), respiration rate, heart rate, and blood vessel stiffness. Of particular importance is that reflective PPG sensors can be easily attached anywhere on the body with low wearer constraint. However, PPG sensors are susceptible to body motion artifacts. The output signal of PPG sensors is composed of alternating current (AC), originating from the heart cycle, and direct current (DC), originating from veins and stationary tissue. Motion artifacts affect DC signals, making it difficult to detect AC signals. Thus, it is important to reduce DC signals and increase the AC/DC ratio. In this study, we investigated the effect of a light-blocking structure on the AC/DC ratio. In addition, the AC/DC ratio was estimated when the gap between the light source (LED) and the photodetector was small (3.2 mm) and large (8.0 mm). In this experiment, the measurement part was a fingertip, and the AC/DC ratio was estimated when AC had the highest output with the force from step-by-step contact. As a result, the AC/DC ratio of the light-blocking structure was 2.4%, and the AC/DC of the non-light-blocking type was 0.9%. Also, the AC/DC of the small-gap PPG sensor was 2.4%, and the AC/DC of the large-gap sensor was 7.5%. Thus, the light-blocking structure was effective in increasing the AC/DC ratio, and a larger distance between the LED and photodetector was useful.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3021-3028
Number of pages8
JournalSensors and Materials
Volume30
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2018

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alternating current
direct current
sensors
Sensors
Photodetectors
Light emitting diodes
heart rate
Blood vessels
photometers
Light sources
artifacts
light emitting diodes
Stiffness
Tissue
output
blood vessels
respiration
veins
stiffness
light sources

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Instrumentation
  • Materials Science(all)

Cite this

Relationship between AC/DC ratio and light-blocking structure for reflective photoplethysmographic sensor. / Nogami, Hirofumi; Iwasaki, Wataru; Morita, Nobutomo; Takigawa, Ryo.

In: Sensors and Materials, Vol. 30, No. 12, 01.01.2018, p. 3021-3028.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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