Relative stabilities of tetramethoxycalix[4]arenes: Combined NMR spectroscopy and molecular mechanics studies

Takaaki Harada, Jerzy M. Rudziński, Seiji Shinkai

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95 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Relative stabilities of four conformers and thermodynamic parameters for interconversion among four conformers of 25,26,27,28-tetramethoxycalix[4]arene (1a) and 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,26,27,-28-tetramethoxycalix[4]arene (1b) have been determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The relative stability of 1a is in the order partial cone (most stable) > cone > 1,2-alternate and 1,3-alternate (undetected) and that for 1b is in the order partial cone (most stable) > cone > 1,2-alternate > 1,3-alternate (least stable). These orders are reproduced well by MM3, in contrast with MM2. In particular, the energy differences between partial cones and cones computed by MM3 (0.27 kcal mol-1 for 1a and 1.50 kcal mol-1 for 1b)† show good agreement with those determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy (0.32 ± 0.13 kcal mol-1 for 1a and 1.2 ± 0.3 kcal mol -1 for 1b). Both the computational and the spectroscopic results suggest that the basic skeletons for cones, 1,2-alternates and 1,3-alternates are relatively rigid (sharp potential energy surfaces) whereas that for partial cones is more or less flexible (flattened potential energy surface). Thus, introduction of the tert-butyl groups into the para-positions destabilizes cones and 1,2-alternates because it is difficult to reduce the increased steric crowding by the conformational change. In 1,3-alternates four phenol units are parallel, so that introduced tert-butyl groups would increase the steric crowding to a lesser extent. The basic skeleton for partial cones changes significantly upon introduction of tert-butyl groups, indicating that the increased steric crowding is relaxed by the conformational change. The finding clearly explains why partial cones frequently appear as the most stable conformer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2109-2115
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 2
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1992

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)

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