Removal of heavy metals from contaminated soil is not popular because of its high cost. Reducing the bioaccessible heavy metals content to an allowable level by washing with inorganic acids and subsequent immobilization of remained metals may be a low cost option for soil remediation. The applicability of this combined treatment was investigated using three different types of soil, a kaolinitic, a smectitic and an allophanic soil, which were artificially contaminated with Pb. The effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated using two main criteria: (i) reduction of the HCl extractable Pb (bioaccessible Pb) below 150 mg kg-1, reduction of water extractable Pb below the concentration of 0.01 mg L-1. These values correspond to allowable levels suggested by the Japanese Ministry of Environment. The soils were washed batch-wise at a solution to soil ratio of 5 L kg-1 successively with 1 mol L-1 HCl and 0.1 mol L-1 CaCl2 solutions. The two solutions were separated by filtration from one batch and reused for washing the next batch of soil without processing. The Pb concentration in the solutions increased after repeated use and removal efficiency gradually declined. The efficiency of the treatment was highly dependent on the type of soil. In the kaolinitic soil, HCl extractable Pb content of the soil from the first batch was about 50 mg kg-1 and it exceeded 150 mg kg-1 in that from sixth batch. But the combined soils from 1st to 10th batches gave bioaccessible Pb content barely below 150 mg kg-1. For the smectitic soil having higher cation exchange capacity, the acceptable number of times of reuse was estimated to be 4. For the allophanic soil, treatment with the HCl solution was efficient only for the first batch of the soil, and the reuse of the acid solution was found to be ineffective. The application of 50 g kg-1 of calcite or slacked lime was effective for reducing the water extractable Pb content. To keep soil pH near neutral and secure long term stability, the application of 50 g kg-1 of calcite and 100 g kg-1 of allophanic soil was chosen as the best method. This combination of amendments could reduce the water extractable Pb to almost undetectable levels after 3 days of aging.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis