Idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE) is a rare subtype of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia that consists of alveolar septal elastosis and intra-alveolar collagenosis, which is predominantly located in the upper lobes. The aim of this study was to examine the remodeling of the pulmonary arteries in patients with IPPFE. This study included 18 patients with IPPFE, 24 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and 5 patients without pulmonary disease as controls. We selected muscular pulmonary arteries and calculated the percentage of the thickness of each layer of the wall (intima, media, and adventitia) in relation to the external diameter. We also quantified the percentage of areas of elastic fiber in the media divided by the whole area of the media (medial elastic fiber score). The percentage of adventitial thickness in IPPFE was significantly higher than that in IPF and in control lungs. The percentage of medial thickness did not differ statistically between IPPFE and IPF. However, the medial elastic fiber score in IPPFE was also significantly larger than that in IPF and control lungs. These results suggest that collagenous thickening of the adventitia and medial elastosis are distinct histological features in the muscular pulmonary arteries of patients with IPPFE.
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