Background: The present study sought to reduce the incidence of treatment complications of low-risk neuroblastoma by using image-defined risk factors (IDRFs) to inform the timing of surgical resection. Procedures: Eligible patients included children (<18 years of age) with stage 1 or 2 disease, children (<365 days of age) with stage 3 disease, and infants with stage 4S disease. In IDRF-negative cases, treatment was completed with surgical resection alone. In IDRF-positive cases, the timing of surgery was determined based on the IDRFs after low-dose chemotherapy with 2-3 of the following four drugs: vincristine, cyclophosphamide, pirarubicin, and carboplatin. The outcome measures were overall survival, progression-free survival, and adverse events. This study was registered with the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (number 000004355). Results: Of the 60 patients screened between 2010 and 2013, 58 eligible patients were enrolled; 32 were identified as IDRF negative at diagnosis while 26 were identified as IDRF positive and underwent induction chemotherapy. The 3-year overall and progression-free survival rates of the 58 patients were 100% and 82.8% (95% confidence interval: 70.3-90.3), respectively. Neutropenia was the most frequently reported grade 3 or 4 chemotherapy-related form of toxicity (41.7%). With regard to surgical complications, 2.5% of all patients developed pleural effusion and ascites as early complications, while only 2.5% developed renal atrophy as a long-term complication. No fatal toxicities were observed. Conclusion: Using IDRFs to inform surgical decision making for the treatment of low-risk neuroblastoma improved prognosis and reduced the incidence of long-term complications.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health