Aim: Uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS) is a highly aggressive and lethal disease. This malignancy remains the most common type of uterine sarcoma, affecting approximately 0.4/100 000 women each year. Our aim was to assess the treatment and prognosis of ULMS patients. Methods: A total of 14 patients were treated at our institution between January 2008 and July 2017. We retrospectively analyzed their clinicopathological variables, treatment and prognosis. Results: The median patient age was 63 years (range, 35–83 years). The largest group of patients had stage IB disease (stage IB, n = 8; IIB, n = 2; IIIB, n = 1; IVB, n = 3) and the largest group by histological subtype was ordinary (ordinary, n = 11; myxoid, n = 2; epithelioid, n = 1). Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed for all patients, with additional surgical procedures (e.g., tumor resection, lymphadenectomy) performed if necessary. Twelve patients received adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) consisting of gemcitabine and docetaxel. Ten patients experienced recurrence and received multidisciplinary therapies, including tumor resection, chemotherapy, radiation and targeted therapies. The median observation period was 17 months (range, 5–75 months), and 11 patients were alive (without disease, n = 5; with disease, n = 6). Intriguingly, five of eight stage IB patients who received postoperative ACT were alive without disease. Conclusion: ULMS is rare but is associated with a poor prognosis, even if multidisciplinary therapies are administered. However, ACT appears to be effective in improving the prognosis of patients with stage IB disease.
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