This study was a second multicenter trial on childhood ALL by the Japan Childhood Leukemia Study Group (JACLS) to improve outcomes in non-T ALL. Between April 2002 and March 2008, 1138 children with non-T ALL were enrolled in the JACLS ALL-02 trial. Patients were stratified into three groups using age, white blood cell count, unfavorable genetic abnormalities, and treatment response: standard risk (SR), high risk (HR), and extremely high risk (ER). Prophylactic cranial radiation therapy (PCRT) was abolished except for CNS leukemia. Four-year event-free survival (4yr-EFS) and 4-year overall survival (4yr-OS) rates for all patients were 85.4% ± 1.1% and 91.2% ± 0.9%, respectively. Risk-adjusted therapy resulted in 4yr-EFS rates of 90.4% ± 1.4% for SR, 84.9% ± 1.6% for HR, and 66.5% ± 4.0% for ER. Based on NCI risk classification, 4yr-EFS rates were 88.2% in NCI-SR and 76.4% in NCI-HR patients, respectively. Compared to previous trial ALL-97, 4yr-EFS of NCI-SR patients was significantly improved (88.2% vs 81.2%, log rank p = 0.0004). The 4-year cumulative incidence of isolated (0.9%) and total (1.5%) CNS relapse were significantly lower than those reported previously. In conclusion, improved EFS in NCI-SR patients and abolish of PCRT was achieved in ALL-02.
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