Background and Objectives: We have reported that both lifestyle and family history might be related to multiplicity of carcinoma in the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT). The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between the number of carcinomas and risk factors. Methods: A serial histologic evaluation of the entire non-irradiated esophagus was performed in 114 males with esophageal cancer who were divided into three groups (group I: 88 cases with solitary cancer, group II: 11 with double cancers, group III: 15 with three or more cancers). As controls, 228 males with benign diseases were selected. Results: Among group III patients, both the incidence of heavy smoking and that of heavy drinking were 67% and 60%, which were significantly higher than those of group I (28% and 30%) and control subjects (14% and 10%, respectively). Heavy drinkers who were also heavy smokers were observed in 2, 10, 27, and 47% in control subjects, groups I, II, and III, respectively. Regarding family history, 27% of group III had a close relative with UADT or lung cancer, while the incidence was 7% in the control. Conclusions: These findings strongly support the hypothesis that heavy smoking and heavy drinking, as well as a family history of both UADT and lung cancer, might be risk factors for multicentric occurrence of UADT cancer.
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