Objective: While there is an association between successful eradication of Helicobacter pylori (HP) and reflux esophagitis (RE), risk factors associated with RE remain obscure. The aim of this study is to determine risk factors associated with the development of RE after HP eradication. Materials and methods: Among all patients treated with successful HP eradication from 2008 to 2016, we retrospectively analyzed those who were free from RE at initial esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and who were followed up with EGD after eradication. Patients were classified according to the presence or absence of RE at the follow-up EGD. RE was defined as mucosal breaks proximal to the squamous-columnar junction. Demographic data, underlying diseases, medications and endoscopic findings at the initial EGD were compared between patients with and without RE. Results: Among 1575 patients, 142 (9.0%) had RE at the follow-up EGD. The time interval from HP eradication until EGD ranged from 4 to 24 months. The endoscopic grade of RE was higher in males than in females. Multivariate analysis revealed that male sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04–2.24), body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 (OR, 2.91; 95% CI, 2.00–4.22), use of calcium channel blockers (OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.12–2.55), and hiatal hernia (OR, 3.46; 95% CI, 2.41–5.00) were associated with the development of RE. Conclusions: Calcium channel blocker use was found to be a risk factor for the development of RE after eradication of HP.
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