Objectives To elucidate the risk of cardiovascular event occurrence following Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. Design Retrospective cohort study using a LIFE Study database. Setting Three municipalities in Japan. Participants Municipality residents who were enrolled in either National Health Insurance or the Latter-Stage Elderly Healthcare System from April 2014 to March 2020. Exposure Occurrence of S. pneumoniae infection. Primary outcome measures Occurrence of one of the following cardiovascular events that led to hospitalisation after S. pneumoniae infection: (1) coronary heart disease (CHD), (2) heart failure (HF), (3) stroke or (4) atrial fibrillation (AF). Results S. pneumoniae-infected patients were matched with non-infected patients for each cardiovascular event. We matched 209 infected patients and 43 499 non-infected patients for CHD, 179 infected patients and 44 148 non-infected patients for HF, 221 infected patients and 44 768 non-infected patients for stroke, and 241 infected patients and 39 568 non-infected patients for AF. During follow-up, the incidence rates for the matched infected and non-infected patients were, respectively, 38.6 (95% CI 19.9 to 67.3) and 30.4 (29.1 to 31.8) per 1000 person-years for CHD; 69.6 (41.9 to 108.8) and 50.5 (48.9 to 52.2) per 1000 person-years for HF; 75.4 (48.3 to 112.2) and 35.5 (34.1 to 36.9) per 1000 person-years for stroke; and 34.7 (17.9 to 60.6) and 11.2 (10.4 to 12.0) per 1000 person-years for AF. Infected patients were significantly more likely to develop stroke (adjusted HR: 2.05, 95% CI 1.22 to 3.47; adjusted subdistribution HR: 1.94, 95% CI 1.15 to 3.26) and AF (3.29, 1.49 to 7.26; 2.74, 1.24 to 6.05) than their non-infected counterparts. Conclusions S. pneumoniae infections elevate the risk of subsequent stroke and AF occurrence. These findings indicate that pneumococcal infections have short-term effects on patients' health and increase their midterm to long-term susceptibility to serious cardiovascular events.
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