Objective: To assess the efficacy of cytoreductive nephrectomy for Japanese patients with primary metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the cytokine and targeted therapy era. Methods: The present retrospective study evaluated 330 Japanese patients with renal cell carcinoma who had synchronous metastases at diagnosis between 2001 and 2010. The characteristics of patients who did and did not undergo cytoreductive nephrectomy were compared. Results: Of the 330 patients, 254 (77.0%) underwent cytoreductive nephrectomy. Patients who underwent cytoreductive nephrectomy were younger; had better Karnofsky Performance Status; higher rates of lung metastases only and systemic therapy; lower rates of increased lactate dehydrogenase concentration and liver and multiple metastases; and a lower Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center risk score. Independent predictors of poorer overall survival included clinical stage T3/4; poorer Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center risk and Karnofsky Performance Status; increased C-reactive protein concentration; and absence of cytoreductive nephrectomy and systemic therapy. Median overall survival was significantly longer in the patients who did rather than did not undergo cytoreductive nephrectomy, irrespective of systemic treatment. In patients without cytoreductive nephrectomy, median overall survival was significantly longer in those who received targeted (15.5months; hazard ratio 0.45; 95% confidence interval 0.21-0.94), but not by cytokine (8.2months; hazard ratio 0.72; 95% confidence interval 0.36-1.46) compared with no systemic treatment (4.4months). Conclusions: Overall survival seems to be significantly longer in patients undergoing cytoreductive nephrectomy. However, prospective trials are required to confirm our results, as targeted therapy might improve the survival even in the absence of cytoreductive nephrectomy.
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