Dok-1 and Dok-2 are closely related rasGAP-associated docking proteins expressed preferentially in hematopoietic cells. Although they are phosphorylated upon activation of many protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs), including those coupled with cytokine receptors and oncogenic PTKs like Bcr-Abl, their physiological roles are largely unidentified. Here, we generated mice lacking Dok-1 and/or Dok-2, which included the double-deficient mice succumbed to myeloproliferative disease resembling human chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. The double-deficient mice displayed medullary and extramedullary hyperplasia of granulocyte/macrophage progenitors with leukemic potential, and their myeloid cells showed hyperproliferation and hypo-apoptosis upon treatment and deprivation of cytokines, respectively. Consistently, the mutant myeloid cells showed enhanced Erk and Akt activation upon cytokine stimulation. Moreover, loss of Dok-1 and/or Dok-2 induced blastic transformation of chronic phase CML-like disease in mice carrying the bcr-abl gene, a cause of CML. These findings demonstrate that Dok-1 and Dok-2 are key negative regulators of cytokine responses and are essential for myeloid homeostasis and suppression of leukemia.
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