The clarification of mechanisms that negatively regulate the invasive behavior of human glioma cells is of great importance in order to find new methods of treatment. In this study, we have focused on the negative regulation of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced migration in glioma cells. Using small interference RNA and dominant-negative gene strategies in addition to pharmacological tools, we found that isoproterenol (ISO) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) negatively but differently regulate the LPA-induced migration. ISO-induced suppression of the migration of glioma cells occurs via β2-adrenergic receptor/cAMP/Epac/Rap1B/inhibition of Rac, whereas S1P has been shown to suppress the migration of the cells through S1P2 receptor/Rho-mediated down-regulation of Rac1. The expression of tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is required for the inhibitory ISO-induced and Rap1B-mediated actions on the migration, Rac1 activation, and Akt activation in response to LPA. Thus, the PTEN-mediated down-regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity may be involved in the regulation of Rap1B-dependent inhibition of Rac1 activity. These findings suggest that there are at least two distinct inhibitory pathways, which are mediated by the S1P2 receptor and β2- adrenergic receptor, to control the migratory, hence invasive, behavior of glioma cells.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology