Background: Giant cell tumors (GCTs) of bone are primary benign bone tumors that are characterized by a high number of osteoclast-like multinuclear giant cells (MNCs). Recent studies suggest that the spindle-shaped stromal cells in GCTs are tumor cells, while monocyte-like cells and MNCs are reactive osteoclast precursor cells (OPCs) and osteoclasts (OCs), respectively. In this study, we investigated the pathogenesis of osteoclastic bone destruction in GCTs by focusing on the role of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-Flt-1 (type-1 VEGF receptor)-focal adhesion kinase (FAK) pathway.Methods: The motility of OPCs cells was assessed by a chemotaxis assay and the growth of OPCs was examined using a cell proliferation assay. The expression of VEGF and activation of Flt-1 and FAK in clinical GCT samples and in OPCs were detected by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. The correlation between the expression levels of activated Flt-1 and FAK and clinical stages of GCTs was investigated by immunohistochemistry.Results: In GCT samples, CD68, a marker of OPCs and OCs, co-localized with Flt-1. Conditioned media from GCT tissue (GCT-CM) enhanced the chemotaxis and proliferation of OPCs. GCT-CM also stimulated FAK activation in OPCs in vitro. Moreover, there was a correlation between the clinical stage of GCTs and the expression of tyrosine-phosphorylated Flt-1 and FAK.Conclusions: Our results suggest that the VEGF-Flt-1-FAK pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of bone destruction of GCTs.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine