It has often been reported that warming at high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) summer mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) appears during Arctic sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events. This phenomenon, which is called ''interhemispheric coupling'' (IHC), has been thought to occur because of the modulation of mesospheric meridional circulation driven by forcing of gravity waves (GWs) originating in the troposphere. However, quasi-two-day waves (QTDWs) develop during SSWs and result in strong wave forcing in the SH mesosphere. Thus, this study revisits IHC following Arctic SSWs from the viewpoint of wave forcing, not only by GWs and Rossby waves (RWs) originating in the troposphere but also by GWs, RWs, and Rossby-gravity waves generated in situ in the middle atmosphere, and elucidates the causes of warm anomalies in the SH MLT region. During SSWs, westward wind anomaly forms because of cold equatorial stratosphere, GW forcing is then modulated, and barotropic/baroclinic and shear instabilities are strengthened in the SH mesosphere. These instabilities generate QTDWs and GWs, respectively, which cause significant anomalous westward wave forcing, forming a warm anomaly in the SH MLT region. The intraseasonal variation in QTDW activity can explain seasonal dependence of the time lag in IHC. Moreover, it is revealed that the cold equatorial stratosphere is formed by middle-atmosphere Hadley circulation, which is strengthened by wave forcing associated with stationary RW breaking leading to SSWs. The IHC mechanism revealed in this study indicates that waves generated in the middle atmosphere contribute significantly to the meridional circulation, especially during SSWs.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atmospheric Science